CrEAMA, the Croatian Eastern-Adriatic Multi- inter- trans- disciplinary Archaeology Initiative, was formed to establish and integrate the archaeological MIT disciplinary scientific research community in Croatia.
The CrEAMA Initiative is comprised of five legally independent institutions: University of Zagreb, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Institute for Anthropological Research, Croatian Natural History Museum and Cultural Centre Vela Luka, operating as a single partner.
University of Zagreb – Faculty of Agriculture
The University of Zagreb (1669) is the oldest and biggest university in South-Eastern Europe. The University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture (FAZ) is the leading institution in the field of agriculture and related sciences in Croatia.
FAZ is continuously trying to acquire, develop and transfer knowledge in order to educate our students, scientists and experts.
This enables us to enhance the production of food, industry, management of natural resources, and the development of the rural and urban environment, as our contribution to the total quality of living in the national and global framework.
University of Cambridge – McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research
The University of Cambridge has a long and very distinguished record of archaeological research that extends back over 150 years, starting with the establishment of the first chair in Archaeology in the UK (Disney Chair of Archaeology), followed by the first taught university degree course (since 1915). The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research was founded in 1993.
The McDonald Institute acts as the research arm of the Division of Archaeology, but also supports all archaeological researchers of postdoctoral status from other institutions, including the Faculty of Classics, the Fitzwilliam Museum, the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and the colleges. The Institute therefore plays a vital role in both supporting the activities of individual researchers and facilitating synergies across the Cambridge archaeological community as a whole.
Laboratories at the McDonald Institute and affiliated units (Division of Biological Anthropology), University Libraries, and all academic seminars will be available to CrEAMA colleagues for purposes of knowledge transfer (demonstration. teaching, networking, etc.). The McDonald Institute has some of the best research facilities & infrastructure in the world, attracting exceptional researchers and providing an intellectually stimulating environment for training and transfer of knowledge. It has state-of-the-art laboratories for a variety of archaeological subdisciplines (Bioarchaeology including Archaeobotany and Archaeogenetics [Prof M. Jones], isotope analysis [Dr T. O’Connell], zooarchaeology [Dr P. Miracle], geoarchaeology [Prof C. French], material culture [Drs J. Robb & E DeMarrais], GIS [Drs S Stoddart & C. Petrie] and computing [Dr C. Petrie)]. This variety of activities and the climate of free exchange of ideas this generates are undoubtedly beneficial to the successful accomplishment of any research. Library facilities and collections at Cambridge will be critical for the successful accomplishment of the CrEAMA project. These include: The Haddon, Seeley Historical, Social Anthropology and Geography library, all offering unparalleled resources of specific publications. Sophisticated IT, reference collections and some library facilities are accessible on a 24-hour basis. Cambridge is a world centre of archaeological research offering, especially at the McDonald Institute, excellent facilities for the organisation of International conferences and workshops. The Institute has been involved in numerous EU projects – most notably, 10 FP6 & FP7 projects (9 MC IEFs, 1 ERC Grant & 1 ITNs, 1 collaborative project), with five H2020 starting shortly (3 MSCA Fellowships, 2 ERC grants). A number of FP5 projects were also hosted here. A further 140 research and training projects have been funded in recent years by a wide range of other UK and international sponsors (e.g. Royal Society, British Academy, Wellcome Trust, Leverhulme Trust, RCUK). Since 2008, the Institute had hosted c.100 postdoctoral researchers, many of whom have moved on to tenure-track academic positions, and the teaching division has trained over 75 doctoral students. Many have been European and International researchers and students. The University, as a whole, was involved in 353 FP7 projects, a fact which demonstrates its capacity to organise and run large-scale European projects.
Research in archaeological science is supported by dedicated laboratories (in total c.450 m2) in Archaeobotany, Archaeogenetics, Zooarchaeology, Geoarchaeology, GIS, and stable isotope analysis, with four laboratory managers and two computer officers, the McDonald Institute providing funding for 2.5 of
these 6 FTE. Equipment includes high-quality optical microscopes; thin-sectioning, magnetic susceptibility, XRF and SEM facilities; central and distributed computing facilities; and comprehensive facilities for soil embedding, skeleton preparation, sieving and flotation.
The expanding work in material culture studies, integrating science and humanities approaches, underpinned our decision in 2011 to establish a Material Culture Laboratory, which has provided an important forum for Cambridge researchers working in different periods and with different approaches to explore material culture theory and practice and the effective integration of the two. The University’s investment of £167k CIF funding in 2009-2010 and £197k Capital Funding in 2012-2013 enabled the equipment base of the whole suite of Archaeology laboratories to be enhanced (e.g. petrographic and palynological microscopes with digital image capture kit, upgrading of computing facilities and reference collections, additional freezers, centrifuges, and balances), provision for Masters research training in archaeological science to be expanded (a separate laboratory equipped with digital visual facilities, microscopes for bioarchaeological and pedological studies with appropriate cameras and teaching screens), and fieldwork support to be enhanced with a portable XRF, GPS surveying system, and 3-D laser scanner.
Co-management of three cross-departmental facilities gives Archaeology access to palynology facilities and aerial photographic collections and facilities (Geography); mass spectrometric analytical facilities for a range of key light and heavy isotopes on principal archaeological materials (organic and inorganic), and mass spectrometer facilities (with the Godwin Laboratory, Earth Sciences); and scanning and transmission electron microscope and confocal microscopy (Multi-Imaging Centre, Physiology, Development and Neuroscience), whilst our archaeogenetics researchers have access to DNA extraction facilities in Biochemistry for their archaeological samples and DNA genotyping facilities in NIAB, the National Institute for Agricultural Botany. Our research is further supported by Cambridge’s formidable library resources and world-class archaeological collections (notably the Fitzwilliam Museum and the MAA) and, for bioarchaeology, major collections for pollen, plant macrofossils, herbarium specimens, vertebrate and invertebrate groups, and (the BA Duckworth Collection) human remains.
The McDonald Institute promotes the dynamic flow of ideas, methods, and results across disciplines, creating a stimulating research environment for CrEAMA scientists who come to Cambridge. Collaboration, comparing methods, and exchange information with Croatian scholars in the field of palaeoenvironmental studies, and integrating also with the Pisa group specialised in Geomorphology and Geoarchaeology. The University of Cambridge and more specifically the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research have some of the best research facilities and infrastructure in the world and a team of exceptional researchers covering a variety of subdisciplines, including, but not limited to: Bioarchaeology including Archaeobotany and Archaeogenetics, isotope analysis, Zooarchaeology, Geoarchaeology, material culture, GIS, computing and evolutionary population genetics. Moreover, each participant from the University of Cambridge will provide his expertise according to his or her research interests. Dr. Preston Miracle is a Senior Lecturer at University of Cambridge, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, and director of the Grahame Clark Laboratory for Zooarchaeology. He is a leading authority on early prehistory (Palaeolithic and Mesolithic), the Balkans, human-animal relations in the past, and the archaeology of the body. Dr. Miracle has led numerous research projects on Palaeolithic and Mesolithic settlements of the Adriatic region in Croatia in from 1995 to the present. These have been conducted in collaboration with, among others, the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Cultural Centre of Vela Luka, Institute of Anthropology, Archaeological Museum of Istria, and the Department of Archaeology at the University of Zagreb. His current field research is focused on the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic occupation of Korčula, and the Palaeolithic of northern Bosnia.
His current laboratory research involves analysis of faunal remains from numerous cave sites from Croatia, such as Krapina, Vindija, Šandalja, Mujina and Romualdova pećina. Professor Martin Jones, George Pitt-Rivers Professor of Archaeological Science, currently directs the George Pitt-Rivers Laboratory for Bioarchaeology and the Glyn Daniel Laboratory for Archaeogenetics. Professor Cyprian Broodbank, Disney Professor of Archaeology and Director of the McDonald Institute, is currently researching Mediterranean archaeology and history, comparative island archaeology, and archaeology as deep global history. Dr. Toomas Kivisild’s research interests include most generally human evolution and evolutionary population genetics, with a particular focus on questions relating global genetic population structure with evolutionary processes such as selection, drift, migrations and admixture. Cristiana Scheib is a PhD student (Dr Kivisild, Supervisor) with expertise in NGS methods and human genomes; these skills are directly transferable to the genomic analysis of other organisms including plants and domestic animals. Senior Fellows (emeritus) of the McDonald Institute also actively contribute to its research culture, and include Professor Colin Renfrew and Professor Graeme Barker, both formerly Disney Professor of Archaeology and Director of the McDonald Institute. Professor Renfrew coined the term “Archaeogenetics” in 1999, and although retired since 2004, remains an active and strong advocate of Archaeogenetics and trans-disciplinary approaches to Sciences of the Past. His successor, Professor Graeme Barker similarly helped promote the role of genetics in archaeological science in Cambridge, particularly in the study of horse domestication in Central Asia.
University of Pisa
Today the University of Pisa includes: 20 large departments, covering all disciplinary areas; 58 First cycle (Bachelor) degree courses; 66 Long cycle (Master) degree courses; 8 long single-cycle degree courses; 20 PhD courses; 42 Specialisation Schools; 75 Master’s courses;
The academic staff includes 1517 professors and researchers, 1477 administrative employees, and more than 50.000 students; they are accommodated in several teaching and research buildings, laboratories, museums and libraries (17 libraries) spread throughout the city. UNIPI is committed to promoting and supporting research in every field of knowledge, encouraging innovation and openness to new subjects and collaboration among disciplines.
Thanks to the quality of the research undertaken by its academic staff, individually or in teams, UNIPI holds a prominent position in the national and international scientific context. In recent international rankings (QS World University Rankings by subject), the University of Pisa is the first University in Italy in Physics and Astronomy, 42th in the world, and it was awarded very good position in several other relevant sectors. It ranks first among Italian Universities and among the top 150 universities in the world following the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) 2013 released by the Shanghai JaoTong University. In 2013 it obtained the ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) label and the ECHE (Erasmus Charter for Higher Education).
The University of Pisa is involved in a large number of EU-funded projects, especially under the 7th Framework Programme (with 157 projects in execution, 19 as coordinator). The “Welcome Office” runs an information and support center for foreign students and scholars, providing information and support on various aspects of University life, from visas to accommodation.
The Department of Biology groups together scholars interested in a wide range of topics, studying life at all levels of biological organisation, from viruses to bacteria, animals, plants and human beings. The Department research is functionally-oriented, concerning the study of cells, organs, individuals, populations and ecological communities in their evolutionary context; besides basic research, also its applicative aspects are promoted.
The Department personnel teach at all levels within the curricula of Biology, Molecular Sciences, Biotechnologies, Natural and Environmental Sciences, including the Doctorate School in Biological and Molecular Sciences.
Regarding the Proposal, the Department has a long history of expertise in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, including functional studies, human palaeontology and behaviour, anthropological archaeology and human adaptations to the environment, and geoarchaeology, contextualising them in a historical perspective.
The Department of Earth Sciences of Pisa University (DST) is an institution active since the mid nineteenth century, and has hosted some of the most famed Italian geologists of the past; at present, it is ranked second for scientific production among the Italian geological departments. Forty researchers and professors are currently active in all branches of Earth Sciences and are also involved in a number of bachelor- and masterlevel courses, five of which are directly managed by the Department, as well as in the Doctorate School in Earth Sciences.
The activities of DST are largely based on a number of laboratories interconnected within the Pisa University laboratories network. These are equipped with sophisticated instruments, especially for mineral and inorganic chemicals detection (SEM, ICP-MS, X ray spectrometer etc.) and for landscape studies (remote sensing and GIS labs). Instrumental facilities for fieldwork (coring, DGPS measurements) are also available. Funding of the activities of DST come from a large number of national and international projects as well as from private entities.
The Geomorphology group is experienced in investigations of different morphoclimatic environments, including coastal areas of different parts of the world. Recently scientific interests of part of the group have been focussed on sea level change, coastal palaeogeography, and relationship between human populations and changes in littoral environments.
Department of Biology
The Department is equipped with excellent laboratories and field equipment, and can perform high-level research in laboratory as well in the field. Regarding the Proposal topics, it includes two laboratories of Osteology and of Functional Morphology, which operate in agreement with the Medical School for bone CTscanning; these are equipped with last-generation hardware and software for human bone shape and structure analysis. A laboratory of Geoarchaeology and soil micromorphology is shared with the Department of Earth Sciences; it includes full equipment for soil and sediment physical and chemical analyses, as well as microscopes for soil micromorphological analysis.
Department of Earth Sciences
The activities of DST are largely based on a number of laboratories interconnected within the Pisa University laboratories network. These are equipped with sophisticated instruments, especially for mineral and inorganic chemicals detection (SEM, ICP-MS, X ray spectrometer etc.) and for landscape studies (remote sensing and GIS labs). Instrumental facilities for fieldwork (coring, DGPS measurements) are also available.
Collaboration, comparing methods, and exchange information with Croatian scholars in the field of Geomorphology and Geoarchaeology, and integrating also with the Cambridge group specialised in palaeoenvironmental studies. The scopes are to set up a common operational protocol in coastal geomorphology, aimed at comparing sea-level changes in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian areas, and at stimulating the development of expertise in Geoarchaeology and Soil Micromorphology applied to palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in Croatia. The capacities resulting from this part of the project are expected to be employed in the field of archaeogenetics-archaeozoology-human adaptation/behaviour, integrating their research strengths in the topics of human and animal functional morphology and geometric morphometrics, as well as in geoarchaeology, with those of the Croatian group specialised in animal and human genetics, and of the Cambridge and Croatian scholars working on archaeozoology and archaeobotany. The aim is to build up a robust multidisciplinary group, able to connect environmental change to physical adaptations (animal and human) and human behaviour/culture in the past, and to look for causal connections among these three points. The Anthropology Research Unit of the Department of Biology has a long history of expertise in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, including functional studies, human palaeontology and behaviour, anthropological archaeology and human adaptations to the environment, and geoarchaeology, contextualising them in a historical perspective. Two participants in the project are members of this Unit:
– Damiano Marchi is a physical anthropologist specialised in human and animal functional morphology and geometric morphomerics. His expertise is mostly oriented to geometrical analysis of bones with computerbased analysis of bone CT-scans, and has carried out extensive studies about locomotion mechanics. His skills will be applied in building up a robust group of study on physical adaptations to environmental change.
– Giovanni Boschian is geoarchaeologist, interested in the applications of Geoarchaeology and Soil Micromorphology to palaeoenvironmental change and to the study of geological traces of human behaviour. He has also carried out archaeological excavations, and has extensive interests in Environmental Archaeology and human adaptations to the environment. His strongly interdisciplinary skills in Prehistory, cave geoarchaeology and Quaternary Geology will be employed in building up the groups working on palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and on physical/cultural adaptations.
– Laura Franciosi is an administrative member of the Department of Biology, especially in charge of the management of funds deriving from European projects. She has long experience in this field, acquired in several years of service in the University administration.
The Geomorphology group of the Department of Earth Sciences is experienced in investigations of different morphoclimatic environments, including coastal areas of different parts of the world. Recently, scientific interests of part of the group have been focussed on sea level change, coastal palaeogeography, and relationship between human populations and changes in littoral environments.
– Marta Pappalardo is a geomorphologist, with strong interests in coastal geomorphology and sea-level change; she is specialist in the use of high-accuracy GPS measures in the assessment of past sea-levels. Recently, she has developed interests in coastal geoarchaeology and human adaptations to the marine/coastal environment. Her skills will be employed in the development of a geomorphology-geoarchaeology group oriented to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions that can be passed to the other groups.
University of Zagreb – Faculty of Science
The Faculty of Science of the University of Zagreb was established in 1946, although teaching started already in 1876. The Faculty includes 7 departments, the Seismological Service, the Mareographic and Meteorological stations and the Botanical garden. The Faculty has 288 full professors, associate and assistant professors, 180 junior researchers and about 4500 students. The Faculty offers undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate study programmes and pursues research in the fields of natural sciences and mathematics. The Faculty of Science is engaged in excellent cooperation with numerous universities and institutes abroad.
Professors of the Faculty have been invited as visiting lecturers to European and American universities and young staff members, as well as postgraduate students, are regularly sent to international universities and institutes for further research.
Technical equipment relevant to the proposed project at Faculty of Science consists of: Tissue Lyser Qiagen-Retsch, NB 5 Water Bath Nuve , S130H Hybridisation oven/shaker Stuart, P330 Nanophotometer Implen, WLC 6/A2 Precision balance RadWag, GenAmp 9600 PCR system Applied Biosystems, Qiaxcel Advance Capillary electrophoresis system Qiagen, 4-16KSCentrifuge Sigma, Phero Stab 500 Power supply Biotech- Fisher, Micro 200 Centrifuge Hettich, 5415D Centrifuge Eppendorf, Bio TDB Dry block heating thermostat Biosan, ALC – 210.4, Analytical balance AccuLab, GenAmp 2700 PCR system Applied Biosystems, AVC- 4D1 Laminar flow cabinet Esco, GenAmp 9700 PCR system Applied Biosystems, Freezers 6 units -20 C Gorenje, VX 100 Ultralow freezer (- 80 C) Jouan, Milli-Q Plus Watter purification system Millipore, Termomixer Comfort Thermomixer Eppendorf, PB-20 pH meter Sartorius, PCR System 7300 Real Time PCR system Applied Biosystems, TH15 KS15 Incubator hood and shaker Edmund Buchler GmBH, DigiGenius Electrophoresis and documentation system Syngene, FlouStar Optima Microplate reader BMG Labtech, KK 500Climatic Chamber Pol-Eko Aparatura, 1200 HPLC Liquid cromatrography system Agilent. Laboratory of Archaeobotany have all necessary equipment for archaeobotanical analyses i.e. extraction, identification, preservation and storage of plant macro-remains and, with collaborative laboratory, for pollen (sieving and flotation systems, microscopes and binoculars, reference collection, chemicals).
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
The Institute for Quaternary paleontology and geology of Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts was founded in 1955. It is the only institution in Croatia that focuses on systematic geological and paleontological studies of the Quaternary period with the aim of reconstructing changes in the paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, fauna, and the evolution of hominids. The main research areas are following: Quaternary biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleozoogeography, microevolutionary processes, taphonomy, faunal and human migrations, and archaeozoology. The Institute’s collections, comprise the material collected throughout many years of fieldwork, encompass various and numerous finds dated to the Pleistocene and Holocene periods. The collections consist of the fossil faunal remains, sediments, the world-famous Neanderthals from the Vindija cave, yielding significant aDNA contribution to the European Pleistocene genetic studies, and anatomically modern humans from the caves Velika pećina, Vindija, Veternica, and Šandalja.
The richness and diversity of the collections and the Institute’s library provide many reasons for the collaboration with other related institutions in Croatia and abroad. The activities of the Institute also include systematic information processing, education, and popularisation of the geosciences. Therefore, all these activities match the tasks of the project proposal.
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts equipment relevant to proposed work in the project consists of Binocular Microscope Carl Zeiss Jena, XTL 3400D, Photo camera Canon EOS 450 D,18-125 mm F 3.8 – 5.6 DC OS, macro lens 50 mm F2.8, Projector and several PCs.
Institute for Anthropological Research
The Institute for Anthropological Research in Zagreb, established in 1992, is the only scientific institution conducting multidisciplinary anthropological research in Croatia. Research at the Institute covers a variety of fields including physical and cultural anthropology, linguistics and human genetics. One group of researchers investigates past human populations which inhabited Croatia during prehistoric and early historic times. Their research includes the study of material cultural remains, as well as the study of biological remains of the ancient inhabitants themselves.
Analyses of material culture include, among other, formal, functional and technological analyses of pottery and lithic artefacts, as well as their distribution within and between sites, aimed at reconstruction of past technologies, societies and interaction networks. Analyses of biological remains of past inhabitants of the region follow standard bioanthropological methods, aimed at reconstruction of specific conditions, characteristics and ways of life of the past populations, as well as their demographic characteristics and health condition.
None of the significant infrastructure or technical equipment at the Institute for Anthropological Research is planned to be used by the proposed work.
Croatian Natural History Museum
Croatian Natural History Museum (CNHM) is the main repository institution of the natural history collections in Croatia. It houses more than 1.5 million biological and geological specimens, evidencing traces of past life and natural process, and documenting current biological and geological diversity of present day Croatia. The main tasks of the Croatian Natural History Museum encompass collecting and preserving significant biological and geological samples, conducting scientific research, and disseminating the knowledge yielding from the scientific studies to the general museum audience.
The CNHM curators and researchers work on scientific evaluation of the collected specimens, striving to understand past biological and geological processes, comparing them to the present day changes in the environment, raising awareness of the challenges we will face in life and earth sciences in the future. One of the collections and research areas by which CNHM is internationally recognized is its paleoanthropological collections. Due to the focus and experience in studying past human populations, in the details of their morphology and behavior, CNHM is an appropriate partner in the CrEAMA Initiative. In addition, due to the experience of disseminating anthropological studies to the various profiles of audiences (both peers and general museum visitors), CNHM can serve as a mediator and offer valuable help preparing and presenting the results of the CrEAMA Initiative to general public.
CNHM houses a significant repository of the digital data of the anthropological collections. The existing database can be helpful in organizing and disseminating research being done by the CrEAMA Initiative members.
Cultural Centre Vela Luka
Cultural Centre Vela Luka (Cultural Centre) on the island of Korčula has been running since the 1970s. The base activity of the centre (defined in the statute of the institution) is gathering, studying, presentation and protection of cultural, traditional and natural heritage of Vela Luka. The Cultural Centre keeps a number of artistic, historical and archaeological collections, amongst which we would like to single out the one from the archaeological site Vela Spila („the great cave“). The task of the institution is preservation, study, protection and promotion of the above mentioned collections. In order to realise this goal the Cultural Centre cooperates with a number of Croatian institutions, as well as those abroad.
The institution shall ensure that the archaeological site of Vela Spila remains protected, as well as promote further research and scientific study. According to the decision of the Conservation Department of the Ministry of Culture, the institution is also allowed to keep the remains found during excavations of the necropolis of the prehistoric ruins of Kopila. The institution has years of experience in organising educational/research projects with both Croatian and foreign participants.
The Cultural Centre has several exhibition halls, work areas and other areas necessary for carrying out all activities. It is well connected with the local administration, tourism operators, schools and health institutions in the area which are all ready to provide assistance with resources and personnel in all activities of the planned project.